Fluoroscopy enables real-time radiographic visualization of moving anatomic structures. A continuous x-ray beam passes through the patient and falls onto a fluorescing screen. The faint light pattern emitted by the fluorescing screen is amplified electronically by an image intensifier, and the image is displayed on a television monitor and recorded digitally as a single or series of images for real-time viewing, that is, a movie or “cinefluoroscopy.” Fluoroscopy is extremely useful to evaluate motion such as gastrointestinal (GI) peristalsis, movement of the diaphragm with respiration, and cardiac action. Fluoroscopy is also used to perform and monitor continuously radiographic procedures such as barium studies and catheter placements. Most fluoroscopic systems are now entirely digital. Video and static fluoroscopic images are routinely stored in digital format on a PACS.
(William E. Brant and Clyde A. Helms)
Our department is equipped with the new system from Shimadzu. The FluoroSpeed 300 Digital R/F System is designed for high performance Digital R/F and Bucky radiography. By combining the latest DR system with the YSF-300 R/F table, the system's capability is expanded to digitize the examinations from gastrointestinal to general radiographic studies of the highest image quality.
The FluoroSpeed 300 was designed with both the operator and the patient. This comprehensive system not only simplifies the examination process, but also ensures safer examinations at lower X-ray dose.
The FluoroSpeed 300 is equipped with a high-quality, high-density-resolution CCD camera. View high quality, full digital images in real time with minimal halation in procedures ranging from gastrointestinal examinations to orthopedic and myelography.
Image Intensifier ( I.I )
The c-arm machine is an imaging scanner intensifier, so named because of its configuration and physical nature.  A C-arm comprises a generator (X-ray source) and an image intensifier or flat-panel detector. The C-shaped connecting element allows movement horizontally, vertically and around the swivel axes, so that X-ray images of the patient can be produced from almost any angle. The generator emits X-rays that penetrate the patient's body. The image intensifier or detector converts the X-rays into a visible image that is displayed on the C-arm monitor. The doctor can identify and check anatomical details on the image such as blood vessels, bones, kidney stones and the position of implants and instruments at any time. The C-arms have radiographic capabilities, though they are used primarily for fluoroscopic  imaging during surgical, orthopedic, critical care, and emergency care procedures.
In Hospital USM, our Department of Radiology provide services to the Operation Theater with a few c-arm machines to back up various disciplinary in surgery operation. Our radiographers in duty is in 24 hours standby and will be call up upon the cases needed.
In order to fulfill the operational workload in OT, our department of radiology has 6 machines which are:
Phillip BV 25 gold - 2 units
Ziehm 8000 - 1 unit
Siemens Arcadis Orbic - 1 unit
Siemens Endura - 1 unit  
GE OEC 9800 - 1 unit
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