PHASE I CURRICULUM
The first and the second years of this program prepares for basic medical course for the students. It includes the study of structure, function and biochemical process of a normal human being which form the basis of pathophysiology and clinical basis of diseases in different systems.
A study on bioethics, social health, communication skills, behavioural science, first aid, basic research methodology and the exposure to the clinical environment in the hospital and in community medicine and public health are also provided to the students.
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of Phase I, students are expected to be able to:
1. Obtain basic medical sciences knowledge which cover these topics:
1.1 Normal and abnormal structure and function
1.2 Biochemical and metabolic process
1.3 Pathophysiology of diseases related to the system
1.4 Basic clinical knowledge related to the system
1.5 Bioethics, social health, communication skills and behavioural science
1.6 First aid
1.7 Molecular biology
1.12 Infectious disease
1.13 Community medicine and public health
1.14 Medical research methodology
2. Acquire these skills:
2.1 Basic laboratory tests
2.2 Basic clinical skills in the related system
2.3 Critical learning and thinking
2.4 Communication (includes peer and teacher communication, etc)
2.5 Time management
3. Develop these attitude:
3.3 Self confidence
3.5 Respect for the lecturers and other staff members
4. Understand the role of a doctor and the attitudes of becoming an ethical doctor.
This program is implemented based on integrated system and not according to disciplines such as Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacology, Immunology, Pathology and etc. The teaching and learning is integrated in order to obtain education yield which are related between the disciplines combined in those courses.
The aim is to achieve horizontal and vertical integration so that the understanding of the disease process can be achieved efficiently. Integrated medical teaching would be more meaningful for the students even though it is implemented early in the study because the relevant concepts are stressed on compared to detailed information which is difficult to grasp but nonetheless, irrelevant.
This integrated medical education can give more understanding on the relation between the structure and function of the human body, reactions to injuries, growth and development and some aspects on community medicine and behavioural sciences which form the basic understanding of medical sciences, systemic disease pathophysiological concept and clinical sciences.
There are advantages, if we are to compare the integrated system with the traditional teaching system which uses lectures to teach basic medical sciences subjects. The Integrated System learning method is more meaningful and creates more interest among students because the pathophysiology of diseases and disease symptoms can be understood within the same time of learning basic medical sciences.
The students are supposed to mould their analytical way of thinking as a preparation of learning in Phase II in the future.
TEACHING & LEARNING
Phase I consists of Year 1 and Year 2 with four (4) Semesters of study. The courses carried out in each Semester in Year 1 and Year 2, credit units and the total teaching week areas follows:
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
A majority of teaching & learning in Phase I is in the form of lecture, practical and problembased learning. Other methods were also adopted in order to stimulate active learning among the students and sharpen their communication skills. These methods include seminar, physical examination, self‐guided learning, hospital visit, field visit and community placement.
Lecture is delivered by the lecturers to the students in a lecture hall in a big group. The topic delivered is based on the learning outcomes outlined.
Students will undergo practical activities in the Multidisciplinary Laboratory (MDL). This involves learning which needs the students to apply the theoretical knowledge such as identification of structures and performing laboratory‐based tests as well as measuring and analyzing test results.
c. Problem‐Based Learning (PBL)
With the help of a facilitator, a group discussion of a problem based on trigger will be followed by learning of relevant basic medical sciences subjects. Students should actively take part in the discussion during the session. This activity will also contribute a portion of weightage to the Semester Examination mark.
A seminar is conducted by the students with the guide of a facilitator who is an expert in the field related to the topic of the seminar. All students must take part in the discussion although only a group of students are identified to present. Student group selection for presentation is pre‐determined by the facilitator.
e. History taking and Physical Examination/Clinical Demonstration
This activity is carried out at the Clinical Skills Centre. These are preceded by a lecture or demonstration by the clinician. The aim is to expose the students to the basic and standardised technique of history taking and physical examination of patients and for the students to be able to perform these tasks in the clinical years. Also, this activity is designed for the students to understand the relation between signs and symptoms, their pathophysiology and basic medical knowledge.
f. Guided Self Learning (GSL)
Students are required to learn and understand the topics based on learning outcomes and guides provided during the pre‐determined session stated in the timetable. This activity is carried out through the use of e‐learning portal.
g. Hospital Visit
This activity is carried out during the First Aid and Medical Ethics Course. It is handled by the nursing tutors who will introduce students to the staff, infrastructure and facilities in the hospital.
h. Field Trip
This activity is carried out during the Community Medicine, Research Methodology and Statistics Course. It requires students to visit pre‐selected places and to gain knowledge or perform tasks as outlined in the learning outcomes.
i. Community Placement
This activity is under the purview of the Personal and Professional Development Program (PPDP) (Program Pembangunan & Insaniah Pelajar, PPIP). It requires a group of students to work in group to visit and carry out activities in the pre‐selected institutions in the community.
PROBLEM‐BASED LEARNING (PBL)
Problem‐based learning has been part of the learning strategies because it was introduced early in Year 1. Problem‐based learning is a learning process achieved through an understanding of process and following the steps in finding the solution for a problem. In PBL, students are presented with a problem or scenario as their first step in creating and developing knowledge. The problem is a trigger to the learning outcome for the topic or related fields. The problem presented might be knowledge based on basic medical sciences, pathophysiology of disease, clinical basis of disease, community research and others. It is important to note that problem based is totally different from finding the answer for practice session or finding the answer for problems usually presented at the end of learning.
By taking part actively in PBL, students may shape their skills to overcome and critically analyze clinical information. In light with the teaching & learning philosophy of the School of Medical Phase I MD Programme Guide Book 2016/2017 (USM) 14 Sciences, PBL requires students to have responsibility and initiative on their own learning. However, with the help as well as guide by the learning outcomes, instructors and reference materials identified for each course, it is expected that it would help students to equip themselves efficiently with the required knowledge and skills.
Problem‐Based Learning classes are a discussion in a small group which is guided by a facilitator with the aim to enable the students to acquire knowledge actively. This method also ensures more focus is given to each student and indirectly improves initiatives, thinking and soft skills. These attributes are a must in order to equip oneself as a competent and independent doctor. The positive attributes can be inculcated through examples and advice which are constructive, sincere and positive.
Students’ performance in PBL sessions will be assessed by the facilitators in which every student will be graded at the end of every topic. The assessment is based on students’ active participation and contribution in group development as a whole. The advantage of students’ knowledge is not the main factor in this assessment. The assessment made by the facilitators may also indirectly reflect a student’s soft skill development before sitting for the Professional I Examination.
The assessment strategy carried out in Phase I reflects the integrated curriculum structure, based on the core knowledge and represents the introduction to Medical Sciences. Assessment is aimed at evaluating the ability to:
a. Recall previously learned knowledge
b. Structure and deliver knowledge comprehensively
c. Discuss basic sciences concept relevant to medical sciences
d. Identify and describe normal human structure and function
e. Understand and explain pathophysiology of diseases
f. Carry out laboratory test and measure and analyze the results
g. Perform basic clinical skills
The assessment in Phase I consists of formative and summative assessment. Formative assessment is organised in every course in the form of e‐Quiz. It is conducted through the elearning portal (elearning.usm.my). Summative assessment includes the four Semester Examinations and the End of Phase I Examination. Every examination contributes a number of percentages to the final Professional I Assessment result.
The End of Semester and End of Phase I Examinations consist of the following components:
i. Multiple choice question (MCQ)
i. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)
There are Continuous Assessment and End of Semester Examination at the end of every semester. The marks from the Continuous Assessments and End of Semester Examination will contribute to the total cumulated mark of the Semester Examination. The mark allocation is as follows:
*Note:Continuous Assessment for First Aid and Medical Ethics Course ( GMT103 ) will use the following weight age:
ELIGIBILITY TO PROCEED TO PHASE II
1. All students are allowed to progress to the End of Phase I Examination
2. Students who obtain marks of 50% and above in the ProfessionalI Assessment, the theory and the practical components are considered pass and are qualified to proceed to Phase II.
SUPPLEMENTARY END OF PHASE I EXAMINATION
1. The criteria for students who are required to sit for Supplementary End of Phase I Examination areas follows:
a) Profession alI Assessment mark of less than 50%
b) Fail either the theory, practical or both components in the Professional I Assessment
2. The format for Supplementary End of Phase I Examination is similar to End of Phase I Examination.
3. Supplementary End of Phase I Examination contributes 60% to the overall Phase I Assessment.
4. A student who fails the ProfessionalI Assessment after sitting for the Supplementary
End of Phase I Examination will be terminated from the Doctor of Medicine Program.